Male Infertility: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

by | Feb 22, 2023 | Fertility

What is Male Infertility?

Male infertility is a condition in which a man has a reduced ability to produce healthy sperm or to fertilize a woman’s egg. It is estimated that male infertility is a contributing factor in up to 50% of infertility cases. The main symptom of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child after a year or more of regular, unprotected intercourse.

Overview:

The causes of male infertility can be broadly classified into three categories: genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Genetic factors can include chromosomal abnormalities, Y chromosome microdeletions, and Klinefelter syndrome. Lifestyle factors like smoking, excessive consumption of Alcohol, and drug use significantly contribute to male infertility. Environmental factors such as exposure to toxins, radiation, and chemicals can also affect male fertility.

Diagnosis of male infertility typically involves a physical exam, semen analysis, and other diagnostic tests to evaluate hormone levels and check for any underlying medical conditions. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Prevention of male infertility can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle by eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, avoiding drugs and alcohol, and reducing exposure to environmental toxins and radiation.

 

What are the Male Infertility Symptoms?

  • Inability to conceive a child after a year or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Low sperm count or bad sperm motility presence
  • Swelling or Pain in testicles
  • Difficulty achieving erection
  • Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a hormonal imbalance
  • Abnormal breast growth or breast tenderness
  • Problems with ejaculation, such as retrograde ejaculation (ejaculation into the bladder) or premature ejaculation

What are Male Infertility Causes?

The causes of male infertility can be broadly classified into three categories: genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors.

  • GENETIC FACTORS: Genetic factors play a significant role in male infertility. Genetic abnormalities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosome microdeletions, and chromosomal abnormalities can affect sperm production and quality. Certain genetic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis and hemochromatosis, can also affect male fertility.
  • LIFESTYLE FACTORS: Lifestyle choices such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and drug use can all affect male fertility. These substances can damage sperm DNA, reduce sperm count and motility, and affect the hormonal balance in the body. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle can also contribute to male infertility by affecting hormone production and reducing sperm quality.
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Environmental factors such as exposure to toxins, radiation, and chemicals can all affect male fertility. Exposure to pesticides, lead, and other chemicals can damage sperm DNA, reduce sperm count and motility, and affect hormone production. Radiation exposure from sources such as X-rays, CT scans, and radiation therapy can also affect male fertility.
  • OTHER FACTORS: Age can also affect male fertility, as sperm production decreases with age. Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and autoimmune diseases can also affect male fertility. Certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs, can also affect male fertility.
Male Infertility Causes

Male Infertility Causes

In conclusion, male infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. It is important for men to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid exposure to harmful substances to help preserve their fertility. If male infertility is suspected, a medical evaluation and diagnostic testing are necessary to identify the underlying cause and determine the most appropriate treatment.

Also Read: How to Increase Fertility

 

Male Infertility Diagnosis Tests:

Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to impregnate a woman due to various reasons. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factors account for approximately 30-50% of these cases. Diagnosis of male infertility typically involves a comprehensive evaluation of a man’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Here are some of the most common methods used to diagnose male infertility:

  • MEDICAL HISTORY: A detailed medical history helps to identify any underlying medical conditions or lifestyle factors that may be contributing to infertility. The doctor may ask about past surgeries, illnesses, or injuries that could affect fertility. The doctor will also ask about the frequency and timing of sexual activity and whether the couple has been trying to conceive for at least one year. The doctor may ask about any medications, supplements, or recreational drugs that the man is taking, as these may affect fertility.
  • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: A physical exam can help identify any physical abnormalities or issues that may be affecting fertility, such as varicocele, a hernia, or problems with the testes or penis. The doctor will examine the scrotum, testes, and penis, looking for any signs of infection, inflammation, or abnormal growth.
  • LABORATORY TESTS: Semen analysis is a critical test in the evaluation of male infertility. It involves analysing the semen sample to measure sperm count, motility, and morphology. Hormone testing may be done to check levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and other hormones that play a role in fertility. Genetic testing may be done to look for genetic abnormalities that can cause infertility.
  • OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Testicular biopsy is a procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the testes and examined under a microscope to look for any abnormalities. Ultrasound imaging may be used to check for abnormalities in the reproductive organs, such as varicocele or blockages in the vas deferens.

 

Male Infertility Treatment:

  1. Medications
  2. Surgery
  3. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

All 3 Male Infertility Treatments are explained below-

1. Medications for Male Infertility Treatment:

Male infertility can be treated using a variety of medical treatments, including medications. Medications can be used to treat a variety of underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to infertility or to improve sperm production and quality. Here are some of the medications commonly used for male infertility treatment:

  1. Clomiphene Citrate: Clomiphene citrate is an oral medication that can help increase testosterone levels and improve sperm production. It is typically used to treat men with low testosterone levels or those with hypogonadism.
  2. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): HCG is a hormone that can help increase testosterone levels and improve sperm production. It is typically used in combination with clomiphene citrate to treat men with low testosterone levels.
  3. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists: GnRH agonists are medications that can help suppress the production of testosterone, which can improve sperm production in some men. They are typically used to treat men with high levels of testosterone or those with hypogonadism.
  4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics can be used to treat infections that may be causing infertility, such as epididymitis or prostatitis. Treating these infections can improve sperm production and quality.
  5. Bromocriptine: Bromocriptine is a medication that can help reduce prolactin levels in men with high prolactin levels. High levels of prolactin can cause low testosterone levels and reduced sperm production.
  6. Antioxidants: Antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and coenzyme Q10 can help improve sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress. They are typically used as a supplement in combination with other treatments.

Medications can be an effective treatment option for male infertility. By addressing underlying medical conditions or improving sperm production and quality, medications can improve a man’s chances of conceiving with his partner. It’s important to talk to a doctor about the best treatment options based on an individual’s medical history and needs.

Also Read: Infertility – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

2. Surgical Treatment for Male Infertility:

Surgical treatment can be an effective option for male infertility when other treatments have failed. Surgery can help to address anatomical or structural issues that may be preventing conception. Here are some of the surgical treatments commonly used for male infertility:

  1. Varicocelectomy: A varicocele is a varicose vein in the scrotum that can affect sperm production and quality. A varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing or tying off the affected veins. This can help to improve sperm production and quality and increase the chances of conception.
  2. Vasectomy Reversal: A vasectomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting the vas deferens to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. A vasectomy reversal is a surgical procedure that involves reconnecting the vas deferens to allow sperm to flow through again. This can allow a man to regain fertility and increase the chances of conception.
  3. Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): TESE is a surgical procedure that involves extracting sperm directly from the testes. This can be an option for men who have low sperm counts or bad sperm motility. The extracted sperm can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
  4. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA): MESA is a surgical procedure that involves extracting sperm directly from the epididymis using a microsurgical technique. This can be an option for men with obstructive azoospermia, a condition in which there is a blockage preventing sperm from reaching the semen. The extracted sperm can be eventually used for IVF or ICSI.
  5. Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA): PESA is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves extracting sperm from the epididymis using a needle. This can be an option for men with obstructive azoospermia. The sperm that are extracted can be used for IVF or ICSI.
  6. Transurethral Resection of Ejaculatory Ducts (TURED): TURED is a surgical procedure that involves removing tissue blocking the ejaculatory ducts. This can be an option for men with ejaculatory duct obstruction, a condition in which there is a blockage preventing the release of semen during ejaculation. TURNED can help to improve semen quality and increase the chances of conception.
  7. Varicocele Embolization: Varicocele embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that involves blocking the affected veins in the scrotum using a catheter. This can be an alternative to varicocelectomy for men with varicoceles. The procedure can help to improve sperm production and quality and increase the chances of conception.

Surgical treatment can be an effective option for male infertility when other treatments have failed or when there is an anatomical or structural issue preventing conception. By addressing underlying issues such as varicoceles, blockages, or obstructions, surgical treatment can improve sperm production and quality and increase the chances of conception. It’s important to talk to a doctor about the best treatment options based on an individual’s medical history and needs.

Also Read: What Happens If a Man Releases Sperm Daily?

3. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) for Male Infertility:

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) refers to a set of medical procedures that help couples who are struggling with infertility to conceive. Male infertility is a common issue that affects a significant percentage of couples seeking to have a child. Fortunately, advancements in ART have provided several options for male infertility treatment. In this article, we will discuss the various ART options available for male infertility.

  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): In this procedure, sperm from the male partner or a donor is inserted directly into the female partner’s uterus during ovulation. IUI is often recommended for couples with low sperm counts or sperm motility.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF): IVF involves the retrieval of eggs from the female partner’s ovaries, fertilization of the eggs with sperm in a lab, and implantation of the fertilized eggs into the uterus. IVF is often recommended for couples with severe male infertility or when other treatments have failed.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): ICSI is a procedure that involves the injection of a single sperm directly into the egg in a lab. ICSI is typically used when the male partner has a low sperm count, poor sperm motility, or abnormal sperm morphology.
  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA): In this procedure, a small needle is inserted into the testicles to collect sperm directly from the testicular tissue. TESA is often recommended for men with no sperm in their semen (azoospermia).
  • Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA): PESA involves the insertion of a small needle into the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra) to collect sperm directly. PESA is often recommended for men with obstructive azoospermia, where the epididymis is blocked.
  • Electroejaculation: Electroejaculation is a procedure that involves the use of electric current to stimulate ejaculation in men who are unable to ejaculate on their own. The collected sperm can then be used for ART procedures.
  • Donor Sperm: In some cases, male infertility may be severe, and the use of donor sperm may be the best option for conception. Donor sperm can be used in IUI, IVF, or ICSI procedures.
  • Assisted Hatching: This is a procedure that involves making a small hole in the outer layer of the fertilized egg (the zona pellucida) to help the embryo hatch and implant into the uterus. Assisted hatching is often recommended for couples who have had multiple failed IVF cycles or for those with poor embryo quality.
  • Sperm DNA Fragmentation Testing: This is a test that measures the level of DNA fragmentation in a man’s sperm. High levels of DNA fragmentation have been associated with reduced fertility and a higher risk of miscarriage. ART procedures can be adjusted to accommodate the results of the test.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies have provided several options for male infertility treatment. The choice of ART procedure depends on several factors, including the severity of male infertility, the cause of infertility, and the female partner’s health status. Couples struggling with infertility should consult a fertility specialist to determine the best ART option for them.

7 Tips for Male Infertility Treatment:

Male infertility can have a significant impact on a couple’s ability to conceive. While there are medical treatments available for male infertility, lifestyle changes can also play a crucial role in improving fertility. Here are some of the lifestyle changes that can help treat male infertility:

  1. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Obesity can negatively affect fertility by reducing testosterone levels and sperm quality. Losing weight through diet and exercise can improve overall health and increase the chances of conception.
  2. Quit Smoking: Smoking can harm sperm quality and reduce sperm count. Quitting smoking can improve sperm count and quality and increase the chances of conception.
  3. Reduce Alcohol Consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption can negatively affect sperm production and reduce testosterone levels. Reducing alcohol consumption can improve sperm quality and increase the chances of conception.
  4. Exercise Regularly: Regular exercise can help improve overall health and reduce stress levels, which can have a positive impact on fertility. However, excessive exercise can also harm sperm production, so it’s important to maintain a healthy balance.
  5. Eat a Healthy Diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can provide the essential nutrients needed for healthy sperm production. Avoiding processed foods, trans fats, and excessive sugar intake can also improve overall health and fertility.
  6. Manage Stress: Stress can negatively impact fertility by reducing testosterone levels and sperm quality. Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga, or counselling can improve overall health and increase the chances of conception.
  7. Avoid Exposure to Toxins: Exposure to toxins such as pesticides, chemicals, and radiation can harm sperm production and quality. Avoiding exposure to these toxins in the workplace or at home can improve fertility.

Lifestyle changes can play a significant role in improving male infertility. By maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, managing stress, and avoiding exposure to toxins, men can improve their overall health and increase their chances of conception.

Also Read: Foods to Increase Sperm Count and Increase Male Fertility

 

Male Infertility Treatment Risks:

  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may result in multiple pregnancies and associated risks for the mother and babies
  • Hormone treatments to increase sperm count may increase the risk of prostate cancer, heart disease, and stroke
  • Surgical procedures to correct blockages or other abnormalities in the reproductive tract may result in bleeding, infection, or other complications
  • Some medications used to treat male infertility may cause side effects such as acne, weight gain, and mood swings
  • Treatment for male infertility can be expensive and may not always be successful, leading to emotional stress and financial strain on couples

Male Infertility Treatment Success Rate:

The success rate of male infertility treatment in India can vary widely depending on the type of treatment and the underlying cause of infertility. For example, the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may range from 30-60% per cycle, while the success rate of medications or surgery may vary depending on the individual case.

Also Read: IVF Process/Procedure

Male Infertility Treatment Cost in India:

Male infertility treatment in India can be affordable compared to other countries. The cost of treatment varies depending on the type of procedure, the clinic, and the location. Here are some estimated costs of male infertility treatment in India:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): The cost of IUI in India ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 25,000 ($135 to $340) per cycle.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF): The cost of IVF in India ranges from INR 1,00,000 to INR 2,50,000 ($1,350 to $3,400) per cycle.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): The cost of ICSI in India ranges from INR 1,50,000 to INR 2,50,000 ($2,050 to $3,400) per cycle.
  • Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): The cost of TESA in India ranges from INR 15,000 to INR 30,000 ($205 to $410).
  • Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): The cost of PESA in India ranges from INR 20,000 to INR 30,000 ($270 to $410).
  • Donor sperm: The cost of donor sperm in India ranges from INR 10,000 to INR 20,000 ($135 to $270) per cycle.

It’s important to note that these prices are estimates, and the actual cost may vary depending on individual circumstances. Additionally, some IVF clinics in India may offer packages that include multiple cycles at a discounted rate. Couples should consult with a fertility specialist to determine the best treatment option and associated costs.

FAQs:

Q: What is male infertility?
A: Male infertility is a condition in which a man has a lower-than-normal ability to fertilize an egg and create a pregnancy. This can be due to various factors, including low sperm count, poor sperm motility or morphology, blockages in the reproductive tract, hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, or other medical conditions.

Q: How common is male infertility?
A: Male infertility is relatively common, affecting about 7% of all men. However, the prevalence of male infertility can vary depending on factors such as age, lifestyle, and medical history.

Q: What are the symptoms of male infertility?
A: In most cases, male infertility does not have any obvious symptoms. However, some men may experience issues such as low sex drive, difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection, or pain or swelling in the testicles.

Q: How is male infertility diagnosed?
A. Male infertility is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. These may include semen analysis, blood tests to check hormone levels, and imaging tests such as ultrasound.

Q: What are the treatment options for male infertility?
A: The treatment of male infertility depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking or reducing alcohol consumption may be recommended. Other treatment options may include medication to improve hormone levels or sperm production, surgery to correct blockages or other structural issues, or assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Q:  Can male infertility be prevented?
A:  While some causes of male infertility may be genetic or otherwise unavoidable, there are certain lifestyle factors that can increase the risk of infertility. These include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and exposure to certain toxins or environmental pollutants. Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and eating a balanced diet may also help reduce the risk of infertility.

Q: Can male infertility be cured?
A: In some cases, male infertility may be cured with treatment. However, this depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, treatment may be able to improve fertility but may not completely cure the issue.

Q: What is the success rate of fertility treatments for male infertility?
A: The success rate of fertility treatments for male infertility varies depending on the type of treatment and the individual case. In general, success rates for assisted reproductive technologies such as IUI or IVF can range from 10-50%, depending on factors such as age, health, and the quality of the sperm used.

Q: Can male infertility affect mental health?
A: Yes, male infertility can have a significant impact on mental health. Men with infertility may experience feelings of guilt, shame, or depression, as well as strain on their relationships. Seeking support from a mental health professional or joining a support group may be helpful for men struggling with infertility.

Q: Can male infertility be a sign of other health problems?
A: Yes, male infertility can sometimes be a sign of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, thyroid problems, or testicular cancer. If you are experiencing symptoms of male infertility, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine if further testing or evaluation is necessary.

Q: Which treatment is best for male infertility?

A: The best treatment for male infertility depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include medications, surgery, and assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI).

Q: How much does male infertility treatment cost in India?

A: The cost of male infertility treatment in India can vary widely depending on the type of treatment required. Some treatments, such as medication or surgery, may cost less than 10,000 rupees, while more advanced treatments such as IVF can cost upwards of 200,000 rupees.

Q: Which is the best clinic to get male infertility treatment in India?

A: It is difficult to determine the “best” clinic for male infertility treatment in India as different clinics may specialize in different treatments or have varying success rates. It is important to do thorough research and consult with a medical professional to determine the best clinic for your specific needs.

Q: Is there a pill for male infertility?

A: There is no single pill for male infertility, but medications such as clomiphene citrate, hCG, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues may be prescribed to help treat certain underlying causes of infertility.

Q: Is infertility permanent in male?

A: Infertility is not always permanent in males. Depending on the underlying cause, infertility may be treatable and fertility may be restored.

Q: Which drug is best for sperm booster?

A: There is no single drug that is considered the “best” for sperm boosting, as treatment depends on the underlying cause of the low sperm count. However, some medications that may be used include clomiphene citrate, hCG, and GnRH analogues

Q: What is the injection for male infertility?

A: There are a variety of injections that may be used to treat male infertility, depending on the underlying cause. These may include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Q: Is infertility in men curable?

A: Infertility in men is often treatable, depending on the underlying cause. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF or IUI.

Q: Can I get pregnant if my husband is infertile?

A: It is still possible to get pregnant if your husband is infertile. There are a variety of fertility treatments available, including sperm donation, adoption, and assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF or IUI.

Q: Can IVF solve male infertility?

A: IVF can be an effective solution for male infertility in certain cases, such as when there is a low sperm count or bad sperm motility. However, IVF is not always successful and may not be appropriate for all cases of male infertility.

Q: Can Ayurveda cure male infertility?

A: There is limited scientific evidence to support the use of Ayurvedic treatments for male infertility. While some Ayurvedic remedies may have potential benefits, it is important to consult with a medical professional before trying any alternative treatments.

Q: What is the success rate of infertility treatment?

A: The success rate of infertility treatment varies widely depending on the type of treatment, the underlying cause of infertility, and individual factors such as age and overall health. For example, the success rate of IVF may range from 30-60% per cycle.

Q: What is the Hormone Treatment for Male Infertility?

A: Hormone treatment for male infertility may involve medications such as clomiphene citrate, HCG, and GnRH analogues to stimulate the production of hormones that play a role in fertility. These medications may be prescribed to treat underlying causes of male infertility such as low testosterone levels or low sperm count. The specific hormone treatment prescribed will depend on the individual’s underlying condition and fertility goals

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    Dr Mona Dahiya

    Dr Mona Dahiya

    IVF Specialist & Consultant

    Dr Mona Dahiya has performed over 5,000+ IVF cycles and is considered a global expert in IVF, ICSI, IUI and male fertility treatment. She is an eminent writer on Infertility Treatment and has over 100 Publications in both International and National Journals. Dr Mona Dahiya has immensely contributed to the field of infertility through her Research and articles.

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