Assisted Reproductive Technology (A.R.T)
A.R.T is a Coined Abbreviation that essentially Translates to a Set of Techniques that Encompasses a Range of Procedures to Aid Fertility issues Faced by Women and Men. The aim of ART is to help Married Couples Conceive through Assisted Reproductive Technology who are unable to Conceive Naturally through Unprotected Intercourse.
OBJECTIVE OF ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology)
The Objective of ART is the Following.
- Diagnosis & Treatment of Male Infertility Problems.
- Diagnosis & Treatment of Female Infertility Problems.
The Net Outcome of the above two is to identify the Exact Reason/Reasons for Infertility and followed by a Treatment Protocol to Fertilize Sperm and an Egg in a Laboratory to Create a Healthy Embryo for Implantation.
WHAT ARE ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES?
ART Techniques involve the Fertilization of Oocytes in the Laboratory and thereby bypassing the natural process of Sexual Intercourse. The Broad 3 Techniques are.
- IVF (In Vitro Fertilization): It is the Most Successful Assisted Reproductive Technology that enables the Fertilization of a Woman’s Egg with Healthy Male Sperm in a Laboratory. The Fertilized Egg is Known as an Embryo and it is Implanted in the Uterus of a Woman through a Thin Tube in a Painless Procedure (This Process is Known as Embryo Transfer). The Process of IVF involves certain Hormonal Injections and Medicines given to a Woman so that the IVF Doctor is able to Extract Mature Eggs, often referred to as Transvaginal ovum retrieval (OVR). The Male Partner Can be Suggested Certain Medicines/Life Style Changes Retrieve Healthy Sperms. In Summary, IVF is the Process of Fertilizing an Egg with Sperm in a Laboratory and the Resultant Embryo being implanted into the Uterus of a Woman through a Thin Needle. That being said, not every Couple may have Matured Eggs/Healthy Sperms and IVF can be done through Egg Donors and/or Sperm Donors. IVF is continuously evolving with advanced concepts like Assisted Zona Hatching (AZH), Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) & Cytoplasmic transfer.
- ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection): ICSI is about Fertilizing an Egg with a Single Sperm as Opposed to the IVF process wherein Thousands of Sperm are placed with an Egg for Fertilization. From a Patient Perspective, there is no difference in the treatment plan in IVF or ICSI as all Hormonal injections, ultrasounds and other Tests remain the same. The difference is in the Fertilization technique in the Laboratory. In ICSI, a single sperm is carefully injected into a single Egg & is suggested for the following reasons-
- Low Sperm Count or Frozen Sperms being Used.
- Low Sperm Motility or abnormal morphology.
- Multiple IVF failures in the past.
IVF and ICSI are equally successful and an Infertility Doctor decides the Protocol depending on the indication and history of the patient. ICSI is slightly more expensive than IVF and can Cost an additional Rs 15,000/- i.e., 200 US Dollars. The Success Rate of ICSI is usually Higher than IVF with a 90% Success Rate.
- CRYOPRESERVATION (Embryo Freezing): Cryopreservation (Also Known as Embryo Freezing) is an ART technique to Freeze Embryos in a Laboratory that can be used at a later Date for Pregnancy. Embryo Freezing is Different from Egg Freezing as it Involves the Freezing of a Fertilized Egg (Embryo). Embryo Freezing is done usually for the Following Two reasons:
- Couples wanting to Delay Pregnancy due to Professional Reason.
- Couples wanting to Delay Pregnancy due to Medical Reasons.
Cryopreservation is of the Following 2 Types-
- Slow Freezing.
In Simple words, Embryo Freezing is about retaining the Biological Age of an Embryo by Freezing them in Liquid Nitrogen to be implanted at a Later Stage.
Cryopreservation has been a Boon in Disguise for Couples Facing Medical issues (Especially Cancer) and Frozen Embryos that can be thawed later for Fertility have been an ART Miracle. That being said, one needs to consult an expert infertility doctor who can ensure that no embryos are damaged during the Freezing process.
Dr. Mona Dahiya is a World-renowned Infertility Doctor who has helped over 5000 Married Couples realize their dream of Parenthood. Headed by Br Mona Dahiya, Little Angel IVF is Considered the Best IVF Centre in Delhi. Our Clinic is also Rated as the Best test tube baby clinic in Delhi.