Miscarriage: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention & Treatment

by | Jun 27, 2023 | Pregnancy

What is a Miscarriage?

A miscarriage is a spontaneous loss of a pregnancy that happens before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It is an involuntary loss of a pregnancy before the fetus reaches a viable stage. The emotional toll of a Causes Miscarriage can be devastating, leaving individuals and couples grappling with grief, confusion, and a range of complex emotions.

Types of Miscarriage:

Miscarriages can occur in various ways, each presenting unique challenges and circumstances. Understanding the types of miscarriage can help shed light on the experiences of those who have suffered a loss:

  1. Threatened Miscarriage: A threatened miscarriage refers to vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping during early pregnancy. While it is a distressing occurrence, it does not always lead to pregnancy loss. This delicate situation requires immediate medical attention and close monitoring to maximize the chances of a positive outcome.
  2. Inevitable Miscarriage: An inevitable miscarriage occurs when the cervix opens and the pregnancy cannot be saved. Bleeding, cramping, and the passing of tissue are common symptoms. Medical intervention may be necessary to complete the miscarriage and ensure the health of the individual involved.
  3. Missed Miscarriage: A missed miscarriage is particularly poignant as it involves the absence of typical miscarriage symptoms. The embryo or fetus has stopped developing, but the body does not recognize the loss. Often discovered during routine ultrasound scans, the emotional impact can be profound, requiring medical intervention to address the situation.
  4. Recurrent Miscarriage: Recurrent miscarriage refers to the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. This heartbreaking scenario can be emotionally draining, and it warrants a thorough investigation to identify any underlying causes. Support from healthcare professionals and counselors is vital for those navigating this difficult path.


What Causes Miscarriage?

Miscarriages can be attributed to a range of factors, some known and others still under investigation. It’s important to remember that a single cause cannot be assigned to every miscarriage, as each situation is unique. However, some common causes include:

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities: Chromosomal abnormalities are a leading cause of miscarriage, particularly during the first trimester. These genetic irregularities occur randomly and are usually incompatible with fetal development. While it is beyond our control, understanding this aspect can bring solace to those affected.
  2. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, such as low progesterone levels, can compromise the success of a pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in supporting the uterine lining and sustaining a healthy pregnancy. In such cases, medical intervention to restore hormonal balance may be necessary.
  3. Structural Issues: Structural abnormalities within the reproductive system, such as an incompetent cervix or uterine anomalies, can contribute to miscarriage. These issues may interfere with the implantation of the embryo or disrupt the nurturing environment necessary for fetal development. Corrective procedures can sometimes offer hope to individuals facing such challenges.
  4. Chronic Health Conditions: Certain chronic health conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid disorders, and autoimmune diseases, can increase the risk of miscarriage. Managing these conditions and seeking appropriate medical guidance before and during pregnancy is crucial for optimizing the chances of a successful pregnancy.


Causes of Miscarriage in the First Trimester:

The first trimester is a critical period when many miscarriages occur. Several factors can contribute to pregnancy loss during this stage:

  1. Embryonic Chromosomal Abnormalities: During the first trimester, miscarriages are often attributed to chromosomal abnormalities in the developing embryo. These abnormalities can arise spontaneously during fertilization or early cell division. While it is a natural defense mechanism to prevent the development of genetically nonviable pregnancies, it brings heartache to those affected.
  2. Maternal Health Issues: Maternal health conditions, such as untreated infections, uncontrolled diabetes, or high blood pressure, can increase the risk of miscarriage in the first trimester. It is crucial to prioritize preconception care and seek appropriate medical guidance to optimize the chances of a healthy pregnancy.
  3. Lifestyle Factors: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use, can significantly impact the viability of a pregnancy. Making positive changes and adopting a healthy lifestyle before conception can enhance the prospects of a successful pregnancy.


Causes of Miscarriage at 5 Weeks Pregnancy:

Miscarriages at 5 weeks of pregnancy can be emotionally challenging. Here are some possible causes:

  1. Implantation Issues: During the early stages of pregnancy, difficulties in implantation can contribute to miscarriage. The embryo must successfully attach to the uterine lining to establish a secure connection for nourishment and development. Any disruptions in this delicate process can lead to pregnancy loss.
  2. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, particularly low progesterone levels, can be a factor in early pregnancy loss at 5 weeks. Progesterone plays a vital role in maintaining a supportive environment for the developing embryo. Identifying and addressing hormonal imbalances can be essential in preventing miscarriage.
  3. Infection or Illness: Infections or illnesses, such as bacterial vaginosis or urinary tract infections, can pose a risk to early pregnancies. These conditions can disrupt the delicate balance necessary for fetal development, potentially leading to miscarriage. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to safeguard the well-being of both the individual and the pregnancy.


Causes of 4-Month Fetus Miscarriage:

Experiencing a miscarriage four months into the pregnancy can be an extremely distressing event. While the causes may vary, some potential factors include:

  1. Genetic Abnormalities: Genetic abnormalities can contribute to late-term miscarriage, particularly during the second trimester. Chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus can result in severe developmental issues that are incompatible with life. The discovery of such abnormalities can be devastating for expectant parents.
  2. Incompetent Cervix: An incompetent cervix occurs when the cervix begins to dilate prematurely, often without contractions or pain. This condition can lead to mid-pregnancy miscarriage or premature birth. Medical interventions, such as cervical cerclage, may be employed to provide additional support and prevent cervical dilation.
  3. Maternal Health Complications: Maternal health complications, such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, or placental abnormalities, can contribute to late-term miscarriage. These conditions can impact the overall well-being of the pregnancy and pose risks to both the mother and the fetus. Close monitoring and appropriate medical management are crucial in such cases.


Early Symptoms of Miscarriage:

Miscarriage can manifest through various symptoms, although not all individuals may experience the same signs. It is crucial to be aware of the following indications:

  1. Vaginal Bleeding: Vaginal bleeding is a common symptom of miscarriage. It may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding. While bleeding does not always indicate a miscarriage, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and ensure appropriate care.
  2. Abdominal Pain and Cramping: Abdominal pain and cramping, similar to menstrual cramps, can accompany a miscarriage. These sensations may vary in intensity and duration. The pain may radiate to the lower back or pelvis, and it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for evaluation and support.
  3. Passing Tissue or Clots: During a miscarriage, individuals may pass tissue or blood clots through the vagina. This can be emotionally distressing and may necessitate medical attention. A proper medical evaluation can help confirm the miscarriage and provide guidance on the next steps.


Early Miscarriage Symptoms at 2 Weeks Pregnancy:

Miscarriages can occur at various stages of pregnancy, including the very early weeks. While it is challenging to detect a miscarriage at 2 weeks, there are a few potential symptoms:

  1. Unexplained Vaginal Spotting: Spotting, or light vaginal bleeding, can occur during early pregnancy and may indicate a possible miscarriage. It is essential to monitor any bleeding and promptly consult a healthcare provider for proper assessment and guidance.
  2. Abdominal Discomfort: Early miscarriage at 2 weeks of pregnancy may be accompanied by mild abdominal discomfort. This can manifest as cramping or a dull ache in the lower abdomen. While these symptoms can be worrisome, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for appropriate evaluation.
  3. Emotional Changes: While not directly related to physical symptoms, emotional changes can accompany the experience of an early miscarriage. Feelings of deep sadness, major grief, and confusion may arise as individuals process the loss. It is essential to seek emotional support and lean on loved ones during this challenging time.


Diagnosing a Miscarriage:

When a miscarriage is suspected, healthcare professionals employ various diagnostic methods to confirm the loss and provide appropriate care:

  1. Transvaginal Ultrasound: Transvaginal ultrasound is a common diagnostic tool used to assess the viability of a pregnancy. By using high-frequency sound waves, this procedure provides a visual image of the uterus and the developing embryo/fetus. If no heartbeat is detected or if the pregnancy is not progressing as expected, it may indicate a miscarriage.
  2. Blood Tests: Blood tests, such as measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), can help in diagnosing a miscarriage. The levels of HCG typically rise during a healthy pregnancy, but a sudden decrease or lack of expected increase may indicate a miscarriage.
  3. Physical Examination: A physical examination, including a pelvic exam, can provide additional information to support the diagnosis of a miscarriage. Healthcare professionals evaluate the cervix for signs of dilation, uterine tenderness, or any other abnormalities that may suggest a pregnancy loss.


Miscarriage Treatment:

The treatment for a miscarriage depends on several factors, including the stage of pregnancy and individual circumstances. Here are some possible approaches:

  1. Expectant Management: In some cases, when the miscarriage is in its early stages, healthcare providers may opt for expectant management. This approach involves closely monitoring the individual’s condition to allow the body to naturally expel the pregnancy tissue. Emotional support and pain management are crucial during this process.
  2. Medication: In certain situations, medication may be prescribed to help facilitate the miscarriage. Medications, such as misoprostol, can aid in the expulsion of pregnancy tissue. Close medical supervision and guidance are essential during this process to ensure safety and manage any associated discomfort.
  3. Surgical Intervention: In cases where the miscarriage is incomplete or complications arise, a surgical procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) may be recommended. This procedure involves dilating the cervix and removing any remaining pregnancy tissue from the uterus. It is performed under anesthesia and requires appropriate post-operative care.


Risk Factors for Miscarriage:

Miscarriage can occur to anyone, but certain factors may increase the risk. It is important to understand and be aware of the following risk factors:

  1. Advanced Maternal Age: As individuals age, the risk of miscarriage tends to increase. Advanced maternal age, typically considered as 35 years and older, is associated with a higher likelihood of chromosomal abnormalities in eggs, which can lead to pregnancy loss. Regular prenatal care and genetic counseling can help navigate this risk factor.
  2. Previous Miscarriages: Having experienced one or multiple previous miscarriages increases the risk of subsequent losses. It is important to seek medical evaluation and support to identify any underlying causes and explore appropriate interventions for subsequent pregnancies.
  3. Chronic Health Conditions: Certain chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid disorders, or autoimmune diseases, can increase the risk of miscarriage. Managing these conditions before and during pregnancy, with the help of healthcare professionals, can help optimize the chances of a successful pregnancy.


How Can I Prevent Miscarriage?

Miscarriage is often a complex and multifactorial event, and it is important to approach the topic with compassion and understanding. While it may not be possible to prevent every miscarriage, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk:

  1. Prioritize Preconception Care: Before trying to conceive, it is essential to focus on preconception care. This includes maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing chronic health conditions, ensuring adequate nutrition, and avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption. Taking these steps can help optimize your overall health and increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.
  2. Attend Regular Prenatal Check-ups: Once you become pregnant, regular prenatal care is crucial. Attending scheduled check-ups allows healthcare professionals to monitor your pregnancy closely, identify any potential risk factors, and provide appropriate guidance and support. Open and honest communication with your healthcare provider is essential for a proactive approach to your pregnancy.
  3. Genetic Counselling: Genetic factors can contribute to the risk of miscarriage. If you or your partner have a history of genetic disorders or a family history of recurrent miscarriages, seeking genetic counseling can provide valuable insights. Genetic counselors can help assess the risk and guide you in making informed decisions regarding your pregnancy.


How soon can I get pregnant after a miscarriage?

Experiencing a miscarriage can be emotionally challenging, but it is essential to know that pregnancy is still possible after such a loss. Here are some important considerations:

  1. Emotional Healing: Emotional healing is a crucial aspect of moving forward after a miscarriage. Give yourself time to grieve and seek support from loved ones, support groups, or mental health professionals. Taking care of your emotional well-being will help you navigate the journey toward a subsequent pregnancy with resilience and strength.
  2. Timing of Conception: Many individuals wonder how soon they can try to conceive after a miscarriage. While the body needs time to heal physically and emotionally, there is no definitive timeline. It is recommended to wait until you have had at least one menstrual cycle before attempting to conceive again. However, every situation is unique, and it is important to consult with your healthcare provider to determine the best time for you.
  3. Fertility After Miscarriage: Having a miscarriage does not necessarily mean that you will have difficulty conceiving again. In fact, many individuals go on to have successful pregnancies after experiencing a loss. It is important to approach your subsequent pregnancy with hope and optimism while taking necessary precautions and following your healthcare provider’s guidance.


What Happens During A Miscarriage?

Miscarriage can be a distressing and painful experience, both physically and emotionally. Understanding what happens during a miscarriage can provide clarity and support during this difficult time:

  1. Early Signs: During a miscarriage, individuals may experience symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and the passing of tissue. These signs often indicate that the body is naturally expelling the pregnancy tissue.
  2. Pain and Discomfort: Miscarriage can be accompanied by varying levels of pain and discomfort. The intensity of these sensations can vary from person to person. Some individuals may experience cramping similar to menstrual cramps, while others may have more intense pain. It is important to communicate your symptoms to your healthcare provider to ensure appropriate pain management and support.
  3. Confirming a Miscarriage: To confirm a miscarriage, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and may order additional tests, such as blood tests or ultrasound imaging. These diagnostic measures help determine if a miscarriage has occurred and ensure appropriate medical care and emotional support.
  4. At-home Miscarriage Confirmation: While there are certain signs and symptoms that may suggest a miscarriage, it is important to note that only a healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis. It is not recommended to self-diagnose a miscarriage at home. Instead, reach out to your healthcare provider if you experience any concerning symptoms.


First Pregnancy Miscarriage Rate:

The first pregnancy miscarriage rate is a topic of concern for many individuals. It is estimated that approximately 10-20% of known pregnancies end in miscarriage. However, it is important to remember that these statistics can vary depending on various factors, such as age, overall health, and previous pregnancy history. Seeking proper medical care, practicing healthy habits, and addressing any potential risk factors can help reduce the likelihood of miscarriage.


Causes of Miscarriage in the First 8 Weeks:

Miscarriage in the first 8 weeks of pregnancy can occur due to various reasons, including:

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities: The most common cause of early pregnancy loss is chromosomal abnormalities in the developing embryo. These abnormalities often occur randomly and are beyond our control. They are nature’s way of preventing the development of a pregnancy that would not be viable.
  2. Hormonal Imbalances: Imbalances in hormone levels, particularly those crucial for supporting early pregnancy, can also contribute to miscarriage. Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid disorders may increase the risk. Proper diagnosis, management, and treatment of these conditions can help reduce the likelihood of miscarriage.
  3. Structural Issues: Structural abnormalities in the uterus, such as uterine fibroids or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus, can increase the risk of miscarriage. Identifying and addressing these issues through medical evaluation and appropriate interventions can help improve the chances of a successful pregnancy.



Understanding the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and risk factors associated with miscarriage is crucial for individuals and couples navigating this challenging journey. By recognizing the signs, seeking appropriate medical care, and nurturing emotional well-being, we can cultivate compassion and support for those affected by this deeply personal experience. Remember, you are not alone, and seeking professional guidance and leaning on loved ones can provide strength and comfort during this time of healing.



Q: What are the 5 symptoms of a miscarriage?

  • Vaginal bleeding: The presence of blood or spotting from the vagina is a common symptom of a miscarriage.
  • Abdominal cramps: Women may experience severe abdominal cramping or pain during a miscarriage.
  • Back pain: Some women may experience lower back pain that is associated with a miscarriage.
  • Passing tissue or clots: Expelling tissue or blood clots from the vagina is another possible symptom.
  • Loss of pregnancy symptoms: In some cases, women may notice a sudden disappearance of pregnancy symptoms, such as breast tenderness or morning sickness.

Q: When does a miscarriage start?

A miscarriage can occur at any point before the 20th week of pregnancy, with the majority happening during the first trimester (first 12 weeks). However, it is possible to experience a miscarriage later in the second trimester, albeit less common.

Q: How do I know if I’m having a miscarriage?

Signs that you may be experiencing a miscarriage include vaginal bleeding, abdominal cramps or pain, passing tissue or blood clots, and the loss of pregnancy symptoms.

Q: How many days does a miscarriage last?

The duration of a miscarriage can vary from person to person. In some cases, it may only last a few days, while for others, it can take up to two weeks or more. The time frame can depend on factors such as how far along the pregnancy was and individual differences.

Q: What is an early-stage miscarriage?

An early-stage miscarriage refers to the loss of a pregnancy that occurs within the first 12 weeks, also known as the first trimester. It is the most common time for miscarriages to happen, often due to chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic factors.

Q: How can I confirm a miscarriage at home?

While it is important to consult a healthcare professional for a definitive diagnosis, there are some signs that may suggest a miscarriage at home. These include heavy vaginal bleeding, passing large amounts of tissue or blood clots, severe abdominal pain, and the sudden disappearance of pregnancy symptoms. However, a medical evaluation is necessary for confirmation.

Q: Is it possible to lose a baby at 2 weeks?

Yes, it is possible to have a miscarriage at 2 weeks, although it is more commonly referred to as an early pregnancy loss. At this early stage, many women may not yet be aware of their pregnancy, as it is often around the time when a missed period would occur. If a miscarriage does occur, it may be mistaken for a heavier or more prolonged period.

Q: Is it painful to have a miscarriage?

Miscarriage experiences can vary in terms of pain and discomfort. While some women may experience mild cramping or discomfort similar to menstrual cramps, others may have more intense abdominal pain. The level of pain can depend on factors such as the stage of the miscarriage and individual differences in pain tolerance. It is recommended to seek medical attention if you are experiencing severe or persistent pain during a miscarriage.

Q: What is a false miscarriage?

A false miscarriage, also known as a misdiagnosed miscarriage, occurs when a healthcare provider mistakenly diagnoses a pregnancy loss based on limited information or incorrect interpretation of ultrasound or hormone level tests. It can lead to unnecessary emotional distress and medical procedures.

Q: How long will I bleed after a miscarriage?

The duration of bleeding after a miscarriage can vary from person to person. Typically, it can last for about one to two weeks, but it may continue for up to four weeks in some cases. The intensity and duration of bleeding can be influenced by factors such as the gestational age of the pregnancy and individual differences.

Q: Can stress cause miscarriage?

While stress is a common part of life, there is limited scientific evidence linking it directly to miscarriage. However, chronic and severe stress may contribute to a variety of health issues that can indirectly affect pregnancy outcomes. It is important to manage stress and maintain a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy.

Q: What week is the highest risk of miscarriage?

The highest risk of miscarriage occurs during the first trimester, particularly within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Statistics indicate that the majority of miscarriages happen within this period. However, the risk gradually decreases as the pregnancy progresses.

Q: How heavy is miscarriage bleeding?

The amount of bleeding during a miscarriage can vary. It can range from light spotting to heavy bleeding similar to a menstrual period. Passing blood clots or tissue may also occur. If you are concerned about the amount of bleeding or if it is accompanied by severe pain, it is recommended to seek medical attention.

Q: What causes miscarriage?

Miscarriages can be caused by various factors, including chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus, genetic issues, hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities of the uterus, infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medical conditions (such as diabetes or thyroid problems), and lifestyle factors such as smoking, drug use, or excessive alcohol consumption. However, in many cases, the exact cause remains unknown.

Q: How many hours can a miscarriage last?

The duration of a miscarriage can vary significantly. It may last for several hours to a few days, depending on individual circumstances and factors such as the gestational age of the pregnancy and the method of miscarriage (natural or medically induced). It is important to consult a healthcare professional for guidance and support during this time.

Q: What are the symptoms of a silent miscarriage?

A silent miscarriage, also known as a missed miscarriage, is a type of miscarriage in which the embryo or fetus has stopped developing, but the body does not immediately expel the pregnancy. Common symptoms of a silent miscarriage may include the absence of fetal movement, loss of pregnancy symptoms (such as breast tenderness or morning sickness), and the absence of a heartbeat during ultrasound examinations.

Q: What happens in a silent miscarriage?

In a silent miscarriage, the embryo or fetus stops developing, but the body does not recognize the loss and does not immediately expel the pregnancy. The woman may not experience any noticeable symptoms or signs of miscarriage. The nonviable pregnancy may be detected during a routine ultrasound when no heartbeat or growth is observed. Medical intervention may be necessary to complete the miscarriage process and ensure the woman’s health.

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    Dr Mona Dahiya

    Dr Mona Dahiya

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    Dr Mona Dahiya has performed over 5,000+ IVF cycles and is considered a global expert in IVF, ICSI, IUI and male fertility treatment. She is an eminent writer on Infertility Treatment and has over 100 Publications in both International and National Journals. Dr Mona Dahiya has immensely contributed to the field of infertility through her Research and articles.

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